Garden catalogs have arrived and gardeners are starting to get the itch to get started. The Front Range has had its share of warm days, but resist the urge to start digging in flower and garden beds too early, to avoid damage to the soil’s structure. To assess your soil, pick up a handful, it should fall apart and not stick together like glue. But mild dates in late winter can give gardeners time to get going on several important garden tasks. Begin by planning for changes that you hope to make this year in the garden. Consider attending local garden classes. Many free or inexpensive short courses are offered at garden centers and botanical gardens. Consult garden plans and prioritize projects for this season. If you need landscapers or designers, make calls now to get on their schedules. The calendars of lawn services also fill quickly in early spring—contact services that provide core aeration and irrigation maintenance to make a plan for your lawn this spring. Assess the garden hardscape for winter damage. Trellises, fences, raised beds, or garden structures can be repaired on nice days throughout late winter. Make a list of damaged or missing tools. Now is a good time to clean, sharpen, and oil garden implements. Check trees and shrubs to evaluate their pruning needs. Remove broken branches or branches that cross and those that may become damaged from rubbing. Prune unwanted branches of trees and shrubs. Cut back any remaining dead perennial foliage from last season. Spring-blooming trees and shrubs (like lilac and forsythia) should not be pruned in late winter; their flower buds are ready to open as temperatures warm. Cut branches of forsythia, pussy willow, or other early- blooming shrubs and place in water indoors to force blooming and to bring some early springtime cheer to a room. During heavy snowstorms, remove snow that builds up on vulnerable limbs of trees and shrubs. If the weather is nice, cut back perennials and grasses that were not trimmed in the fall. Add mulch to perennials beds to conserve water and to slow early spring growth. Deep water all landscape plants and turf every three to four weeks on days above freezing to help the plants survive our dry winters. Water only if the soil is dry and only when warm weather is expected for several days. Don’t forget about watering perennial and groundcover beds—especially if they are in areas void of natural precipitation or under large mature trees. Research new varieties of favorite plants in seed catalogs and online. Shop at your local garden centers for seeds, summer bulbs, and tubers (dahlias and canna) while the selection is good. Plant pansies in your garden as early as late February if the weather is nice. Be sure to “harden off” early annual flowers by gradually introducing them to the outdoors—a week or so before transplanting into the garden, place tender plants outdoors during the day to get them used to the sun and to cooler temperatures. February is a good time for a soil analysis in the vegetable garden or planting beds. Lawn areas can be tested too. The soil should not be wet when taking samples. A professional soil test will let you know which nutrients your soil actually needs or if the soil has too much of any particular elements. Often, gardeners tend to add too much fertilizer, compost, or organic matter; this can be as bad as adding too little.
Find out more about soil testing at the CSU Plant, Soil and Water Testing Lab: www.soiltestinglab.colostate.edu. Winter and spring lawn care Rake the lawn to remove stray leaves, twigs, dead growth, and winter debris. This allows light and air into the soil, encouraging turf to grow. In early March, consider re-seeding bare or damaged patches of lawn. Rake bare spots firmly with a metal rake prior to seeding. Sprinkle grass seed into a bucket of soil and spread evenly over the bare spot. Keep well watered until seeds germinate and the new grass is established. Because the soil is cold, seedling germination may take several weeks. Do not apply a crabgrass preventer to the lawn if you plan to reseed in the spring. Precipitation in Colorado is often most bountiful in spring. Delaying the start-up of your sprinkler system may save money and help conserve water. Daily watering is only necessary with new seeds or sod to help establish young roots. In all other circumstances, daily watering only encourages shallow root growth and reduces the turf’s drought tolerance. Begin mowing when your lawn reaches 3.5” high. Remember that the ideal turf-lawn height is 2.5” to 3”. To encourage lawn health and strength, try to not remove more than one third of the leaf blade with each mowing. Grass growth is vigorous in early spring, so edge flowerbeds with a sharp trench between bed and turf. If cool-season turf is in poor condition, fertilize at 0.5 – 1 pounds nitrogen per 1,000 square feet. Aeration, or core cultivation, is standard Colorado turf care. Aerating supplies the soil with air, reduces soil compaction, helps to control thatch, and lets water and fertilizer move into the root zone. Turf can be aerated at any time when the ground is not frozen. Spring and fall are considered the best times for aeration. Aeration is most effective when actual cores or plugs of soil are pulled from the lawn. Holes should be two to three inches deep and no more than two to four inches apart. Lawns should be thoroughly watered the day before aerating so that longer plugs can be pulled more easily. To avoid damaging utilities, mark sprinkler heads, shallow irrigation lines, and cable TV lines before aerating. Leave the cores on the lawn to allow them to work back into the grass. Lawns may be fertilized and seeded immediately after aeration. Water the lawn soon after aeration. Heavy traffic areas will require aeration more frequently.
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